Indian and Buddhist philosophies.
The general source of the Indian (Hindu) philosophy are ancient texts of
Vedas, but concrete philosophical systems are comments to ancient texts, and in
essence are various opinions according to which philosophers realize the human
Each philosophical system describes the world in own way, and in everyone there is a share of true which can be considered. In aggregate philosophical systems contain the information on different aspects of a human life, but from the point of view of physiognomy is interesting information which corresponds with consciousness and individuality and feelings, that corresponds to the basic parameters of the man. Therefore from a context of those or other philosophical systems it is enough to take necessary knowledge to correlate to physiognomy of a face, or otherwise to tell with the physiognomic scheme of the man.
Offered descriptions of philosophical systems of ancient India consider only some most interesting data from the point of view of physiognomy, but from the Indian philosophy it is possible to take much more information and to compare to physiognomy of a human face.
System of Indian (Hindu) philosophy Nyaya.
The word nyaya means "logic research".
From the point of view of philosophical system Nyaya the purpose of human life consists in clearing the man of the real world that can be achieved by means of true knowledge of the supreme reality, provided that the true knowledge should be based on laws of true logic. Namely the thinking of the man should follow four rules: perception (pratyaksha), conclusion (anumana), comparison (upamana), evidence (shabda), that is shown in the table.
|The perception corresponds with physiognomic
sphere of feelings. It is connected to sense organs and it is caused by
manas-feelings, namely the perception is function according to which the
man understands the information known by means of feelings and
The conclusion corresponds with eyebrows, namely is caused by manas-consciousness in physiognomic sphere of consciousness that correlates with perception which is caused by manas-feelings in physiognomic sphere of feelings.
The conclusion allows to determine attributes of phenomena which are identified by means of perception.
The comparison corresponds with middle of forehead and namely is
caused by mahat in physiognomic sphere of consciousness. It allows to understand
names of phenomena, namely allows to connect attributes of phenomena and
words by means of which they are characterized.
The evidence corresponds with top of forehead and namely is caused by buddhi in physiognomic sphere of consciousness. It allows to find confirmations of knowledge by means of the supreme reality, namely allows to confirm knowledge by means of evidences which proceed from the supreme reality.
Comprehension of the supreme reality is possible if the individual EGOISM of the man incorporates to consciousness of the supreme EGO, namely the purpose of human life is correlation of buddhi-individuality with buddhi-consciousness in philosophical system Nyaya.
Pay attention that concepts of knowledge of philosophical system Nyaya are a method of a divination (method of the reference with a question to the supreme reality), as perception - conclusion - comparison are preparatory stages of a divination during which the man concretizes and formulates a question, and evidence is the answer of the supreme reality to the question.
System of Indian (Hindu) philosophy Vaisheshika.
The word vaisheshika means "distinction of features".
Philosophy Vaisheshika is analogue for philosophical system of Democritus, because both systems consider the world as connections of atoms. It is known that Democritus was in the east, and consequently atomism of ancient Greece is borrowed from atomism of ancient India (atomism of Hindu philosophy).
According to philosophy Vaisheshika there are seven kinds of reality, that is shown in the table.
|Substance (dravya) and quality (guna)
correspond with physiognomic sphere of feelings.
Action (karma) corresponds with physiognomic sphere of individuality.
Feature (vishesha) corresponds with the level of eyebrows.
Participation (samavaya) corresponds with middle of forehead.
Universality (samanya) corresponds with top of forehead.
Nonexistence (abhava) has no conformity with physiognomic levels of a human face.
Universality is an eternal essence which is peculiar to all people
irrespective of existence or not existence of the concrete man that corresponds
to buddhi in sphere of consciousness.
Feature individualizes each separate person that corresponds to manas in sphere of consciousness, namely feature is the factor which determines the realized individuality of the man.
The word vishesha (feature) is a basis in the name of philosophical system Vaisheshika.
Participation means unity of general essence with individual essence of the man that corresponds to mahat in sphere of consciousness.
Substance corresponds to prakriti in sphere of feelings and has nine forms. Five forms are sensible and four forms are not perceived. Sensible forms are similar to five initial elements of the Chinese philosophy or five initial potentialities of the Greek mythology, and not perceived forms are similar to four elements of the Greek philosophy, provided that five initial elements and four elements have other names in philosophical system Vaisheshika.
Besides the substance has 24 qualities which correspond to atman in sphere of feelings.
The detailed information on forms and qualities of the substance look in "Vaisheshika-Sutras".
The purpose of human life in philosophy Vaisheshika is connection of brahman-individuality with manas-consciousness and the subsequent connection with buddhi-consciousness by means of mahat-consciousness, that provides correlation of brahman-individuality with buddhi-consciousness. Otherwise it is possible to tell that the purpose of life in philosophical system Vaisheshika is comprehension of brahman-individuality by means of understanding of features in own individuality and participation of own consciousness in general (universal) consciousness.
System of Indian (Hindu) philosophy Samkhya.
The word samkhya means "enumeration".
According to philosophical system Samkhya there are two world original causes. The first original cause "prakriti" is deprived consciousnesses but has activity, and the second original cause "purusha" has consciousness but is passive. At contact of purusha with prakriti there is the world, provided that purusha is outside the world and prakriti forms the world. Namely the philosophical system Samkhya affirms that at the world only prakriti is present, but in essence purusha corresponds to brahman and consequently corresponds with brahman-consciousness, and also corresponds with brahman-individuality and brahman-feeling. Namely purusha and prakriti are projected in three physiognomic spheres, that is shown in the table.
As an original cause the prakriti makes the second stage in occurrence of the
world, therefore there are arising of buddhi and mahat and manas which are shown in spheres of
consciousness and individuality and feelings.
Then as a result of interaction of purusha-brahman with prakriti and as a result of mahat actions the third stage in occurrence of the world is carried out, namely there are arising of atman which in a context of philosophical system Samkhya has the name ahamkara which is individuality of the man and is shown in spheres of consciousness and individuality and feelings.
During three stages in occurrence of the world there are arising of the subtle human body (linga sharira), then the rough physical body (sthula sarira) is formed under influence of three gunas. Namely the combination of prakriti with buddhi and mahat and manas there are forming of a physical human body which consists of set of derivative elements, and as a result actions of gunas gets quality of this or that prevailing guna. Namely prakriti consists of three gunas: sattva (light)and rajas (energy) and tamas (darkness), and consequently as a result in formation of derivative elements from prakriti and formation of a rough body there is an influence of three gunas on formation of a rough body. The properties of consciousness and individuality and feelings get qualities of sattva or rajas or tamas depending on prevalence of this or that guna, and the essence of the man is in aggregate formed.
The detailed information on derivative elements of prakriti and about three gunas look in "Samkhya-Karika".
The interrelation of a subtle body with a rough physical body attracts attachment to a material world. To get rid of attachment it is necessary to refuse self identification with a rough physical body, and also it is necessary to refuse self identification with a subtle body and to return to purusha, that from the point of view of philosophical system Samkhya is returning to original human consciousness. Namely it is necessary to refuse attachment to a physical body and also to the ahamkara-atman which makes a basis of a subtle body. If to take into account that the term ahamkara-atman is just as the soul-individuality then in essence the philosophical system Samkhya denies immortality of individual human soul but recognizes immortality of consciousness.
System of Indian (Hindu) philosophy Yoga.
The word yoga means "the order of reflection".
Philosophical system Yoga are practical methods for clearing of attachments to a material world by means of training a psycho-physiological body. Provided that clearing means a liberation from influence of guna tamas (darkness) and guna rajas (energy), and display of guna sattva (light).
There can be three ways of clearing which depend on features of this or that person that is shown in the table.
|The way of knowledge (jnana-yoga) corresponds with
physiognomic sphere of consciousness.
The way of reverence or way of beloved to a god (bhakti-yoga) corresponds with physiognomic sphere of individuality.
The way of actions (karma-yoga) corresponds with physiognomic sphere of feelings.
From the point of view of physiognomy if the sphere of consciousness is expressed then the yoga of knowledge is peculiar to the man. If the sphere of individuality is expressed then the yoga of reverence is peculiar to the man. If the sphere of feelings is expressed then the yoga of actions is peculiar to the man.
Practical methods of Yoga consist in consecutive exercises which can be
compared to physiognomic levels and spheres of a human face.
Sphere of feelings:
- yama (bridling or abstention) corresponds with the chin;
- niyama (morals or observance) corresponds with the interval between chin and lower lip;
- asana (discipline of a body) corresponds with the lower lip;
- pranayama (regulation of breath) corresponds with the upper lip;
- pratyahara (isolation of feelings) corresponds with the interval between upper lip and nose.
Sphere of consciousness:
- dharana (attention) corresponds with eyebrows;
- dhyana (reflection or meditation) corresponds with middle of forehead;
- samadhi (concentration or merging consciousness with the object of meditation) corresponds with top of forehead.
The sphere of individuality has no conformity with psycho-physical exercises of Yoga, as it corresponds with methods of bhakti-yoga in which a sufficient condition of clearing is reverence of a god, provided that bhakti-yoga assumes reverence and familiarizing to brahman, and in essence assumes familiarizing with the supreme consciousness as the supreme step of Yoga is the condition samadhi which consists in an enlightenment of consciousness. Hence, the philosophical system Yoga, as well as other philosophical systems of India, denies value of human individuality and gives the principal value to transcendental consciousness.
Except for the listed philosophical systems within the Indian philosophy there are other systems. The most known Vedanta and Mimamsa, and also Buddhism which is a derivative from the Indian philosophy. The Buddhism is in one context with philosophical systems of India, but distinctive feature of Buddhism consists in understanding of brahman which designates consciousness. Namely from the point of view of Buddhist philosophy there is no immortal consciousness as if the consciousness of the man incorporates to consciousness of brahman then human individuality disappears, and also there is no individuality as the individual soul can not be immortal. Therefore Buddhism denies any existence and denies any reality in limits or outside the world.
The Buddhist philosophy is opposed to philosophical systems Vedanta and Mimamsa, as in Vedanta the sense of human life consists in connection with brahman that provides infinite existence during cyclic embodiments in the material world and during cyclic returning to brahman. And the philosophical system Mimamsa affirms that human individuality is immortal, that contradicts not only Buddhist philosophy but also contradicts all philosophical systems of ancient India, as the individual soul consists of atoms which dissipate in space when consciousness of the man incorporates with brahman. Namely the statement about immortality of individuality in a philosophical context of Mimamsa is unsupported by evidence if to consider that genuine understanding of immortality is possible only in the Christian philosophy.
In aggregate philosophical systems of ancient India are interesting as together allow to understand principles of human psychology from the different points of view, and also the Indian philosophical systems systematize structures of the human personality that allows to correlate components of personality to physiognomy of a human face.
More detailed analysis on philosophical systems of India I shall try to publish in the future.
The following page represents comparison of physiognomy of a human face with philosophy of Taoism.
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