Principles of Chinese physiognomy.
Except for concepts "san gan wu chan" (three foundations and five
constancies) in Confucian philosophy there is concept "san wu" (three and
five) which is basic for Chinese numerology where numbers are not key but sets
of numbers matter, that allows to consider the world as combinations of
different numerical sets. Namely wise men in a context of ancient Chinese
numerology considered the world as combinations of three fundamental elements
which form a vertical triad: heaven - man - earth, in which heaven above and
earth below, and between heaven and earth there are diverse changes of life. And
also wise men considered the world as combinations of five fundamental elements
which form a horizontal pentad: tree - fire - ground - metal - water. Namely
numerologists of ancient China described the phenomena existing in the world
according to combinations of three and five elements, and
in essence made numerological calculations and described the world by means of
various combinations which are probable in ratio of elements.
In a context of Confucian philosophy these numerical ratio are compared to moral qualities and hierarchical norms of human mutual relation that allows to analyze properties of the man similarly to how analyze numbers in numerology, and allows to consider structure of the human person from the point of view of universal numerical laws. And also comparison of concepts of Confucian philosophy with forms of a human body and in particular with physiognomic levels of a human face allows to carry out numerological calculations or it is possible to tell physiognomic calculations which allow to analyze characters of people.
During such physiognomic or numerological analysis it is necessary to take into account interrelations of elements which are known in the Chinese philosophy that is shown on the scheme.
|On the scheme five elements of the Chinese philosophy
are located as a five-pointed star. The appropriate
moral qualities and physiognomic comparisons with levels of a human face
are specified for each element. Arrows show interrelations of elements.
External arrows specify interrelations caused by "generating", and arrows of a five-pointed star specify interrelations caused by "overcoming".
Generating and overcoming are terms of the Chinese philosophy and mean symbolical sense.
According to generating: tree feeds fire; fire creates ground (ash); ground bears metal; metal collects water and water nourishes tree.
According to overcoming: tree parts ground; ground absorbs water; water quenches fire; fire melts metal and metal chops tree.
The listed interrelations are formed according to symbolical values of five
elements which are considered as
substances which differently influence on each other. But if to compare
five elements to moral qualities and physiognomic levels of a human face then
psychological parameters of the human person have interrelations which are
similar to symbolical interrelations of five elements.
Mercy is the reason of decency (ritual) - decency is the reason of sincerity - sincerity is the reason of keenness - keenness is the reason of insight - insight is the reason of mercy.
And also mercy is capable to overcome characteristics connected with a lower lip - sincerity is capable to overcome characteristics connected with an interval between a upper lip and a nose - the insight is capable to overcome characteristics connected with an interval between a lower lip and a chin - decency is capable to overcome characteristics connected with a upper lip - keenness is capable to overcome characteristics of the man connected with a chin.
According to the listed interrelations of moral qualities and according to parities of moral qualities with physiognomic levels of a human face it is possible to find characteristics which are key for understanding of psychological features of the person if as key to consider characteristics which correspond with the expressed levels of a human face. For example, if the lower lip is expressed and the person shows sincerity, and other physiognomic levels are not expressed and the appropriate moral qualities are not appreciable in character of the person, or the person does not show moral qualities which are connected to the not expressed levels of the face, then sincerity can cause keenness. Namely if the person shows sincerity whereas the aspiration to keenness can be appreciable in character. And also sincerity can influence characteristics connected with an interval between a upper lip and a nose, namely can influence parameters of regulated feelings according to which the person coordinates feelings of people in a society, that is connected with display of an insight which allows to establish the rules in expressions of feelings.
In a similar way by means of the shown scheme of interactions of five elements of the Chinese philosophy and five moral qualities of Confucian philosophy it is possible to consider the expressed and not expressed levels of a human face, and it is possible to analyze psychological characteristics which the person has.
More detailed information on interactions of five elements and parities of moral qualities look in other sources of the information. In particular in Confucian books there is an information on: Li follows from Yi and Yi follows from Zhen; Chzi counterbalances quality Yi and Syin counterbalances quality Li. These statements describe various principles of interactions of five elements, and also correspond with physiognomic principles according to which forms of a human face mean psychological characteristics of the person.
Except for the analysis of moral qualities it is necessary to take into account norms of mutual relation peculiar to people. Namely it is necessary to take into account that moral qualities in a context of Confucian philosophy correlate with rules of decent submission, and consequently within the Confucian philosophy for the cumulative analysis of psychological properties of the person it is necessary to apply the following chart.
|The triangle in the pentagon corresponds to three
hierarchical norms of mutual relation which correspond with three
physiognomic levels in sphere of consciousness (forehead and eyebrows).
The pentagon corresponds to five moral qualities which correspond with five physiognomic levels in sphere of feelings (lips and chin).
Moral qualities and physiognomic levels of feelings are written in white frameworks, and hierarchical norms of mutual relation and physiognomic levels of consciousness are written without frameworks.
If any physiognomic levels of a human face are expressed then on the chart it is possible to note the appropriate white circles, then it is possible to analyze character of the person from the point of view of Confucian philosophy.
For example I bring to your attention a portrait and the physiognomic analysis for character of Johann Caspar Lavater.
|Johann Caspar Lavater was the founder of modern
European physiognomy and consequently the analysis of character of
Lavater in a context of Confucian philosophy can seem inappropriate, but
in any case the human face is image of universal world laws and can be
object of different methods of physiognomic analyses.
Hierarchical norms of mutual relation and moral qualities on this chart are not written but are similar to the chart shown above.
As it is possible to see in facial features of Lavater the top and
middle of a forehead in sphere of consciousness are expressed, and also the
chin, the interval between lower lip and chin, the interval between nose
and upper lip in sphere of feelings are expressed. Therefore
daggers mark white circles which correspond to the expressed features
(physiognomic levels) on the chart.
On the portrait the half-face of Lavater is deflected from an exact vertical and consequently the forehead seems not expressed, also lips and the chin seem expressed, but if to correlate the half-face with an exact vertical then the marked physiognomic levels are expressed.
According to physiognomic sphere of feelings (pentagon on the chart) can be told that mercy, ceremoniousness (decency), insight are appreciable in character of Lavater. According to an insight (interval between nose and upper lip) Lavater established own rules in expression of feelings, and environmental people felt that established rules are necessary from the point of view of common sense. According to ceremoniousness (interval between lower lip and chin) Lavater could observe ethics and virtue even if environmental people were inconsiderate. According to mercy (chin) Lavater was kind to people though could be reactionary and critical.
The listed characteristics were possible in the event that Lavater showed moral qualities which are necessary for perfection in a context of Confucian philosophy. If moral qualities were not shown then:
- the expressed chin means reactionary feelings which do not depend on feelings of people, namely the man does not pay attention to reciprocal feelings of people;
- the expressed interval between chin and lower lip means reactionary feelings which depend on feelings of people, namely the man observes ethics and virtue in the event that people observe ethics in relations;
- the expressed interval between upper lip and nose means regulated feelings which depend on feelings of people, namely the man does not establish own rules in expression of feelings even if the common rules contradict sane sense.
Sincerity (lower lip) and keenness (upper lip) in character of Lavater are not appreciable but these moral qualities could be appreciable according to interrelations of moral qualities, namely ceremoniousness could cause sincerity and also ceremoniousness could overcome psychological properties caused by the not expressed upper lip i.e. could stimulate display of keenness.
According to physiognomic sphere of consciousness (triangle on the chart) it can be told that Lavater had prevailing type of human relation which corresponds to hierarchical norms of submission of "sovereign and dignitary" in character, as top of forehead (sovereign) and middle of forehead (dignitary) are expressed, and the top is expressed more considerable than middle and consequently Lavater took a position of higher in hierarchy.
If to take into account that hierarchical types of human relation correlate with moral qualities then it is possible to assert that Lavater predominated over people and demanded submission, but agree to display of moral qualities he was kind to people and supposed impudence of people though itself observed decency. And also Lavater established rules for expression of feelings and even if the established rules did not correspond to standard then nevertheless people felt that his rules are reasonable.
Johann Caspar Lavater was the priest and it is doubtless that his moral qualities were shown and consequently the superiority over people and other expressed character traits were morally compensated, that promoted social recognition of his theological sights and popularity of his researches in physiognomy. But Lavater was tragically lost when tried to bring to reason drunk French marauders, that from the point of view of Confucian philosophy can be counted as result not observance of quality Chzi (insight).
Individuality of Lavater, namely physiognomic sphere of individuality to which there corresponds a nose, in the given example of the physiognomic analysis is not considered as human individuality has no basic value in a context of moral-hierarchical system of Confucian philosophy, but equivalence of a name and essence matters in a context of Confucian philosophy, that is told on the following page.
Following page results the information on concepts of Confucian philosophy which are comparable to levels in sphere of individuality (nose), and also gives the further comparison of physiognomy of a human face with principles of Chinese numerology and philosophy.
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