Taoism and Chinese physiognomy.
Taoism is opposite to Confucian philosophy but a source of both philosophical
systems is the ancient Chinese philosophy which is differently rethought in a
context of Confucianism and Taoism.
The basic concept of ancient Chinese philosophy is Tao which arises from connection of contrasts, namely Tao is a result of interaction of antipodes, provided that result can be harmonious or disharmonious interaction but Tao in any case arises from connection of contrasts or antipodes. Great Tao is a harmony of contrasts and worthless Tao is a disharmony of contrasts.
Primary antipodes are the Heaven (qian) and the Earth (kun). The Heaven corresponds with physiognomic sphere of consciousness and the Earth corresponds with physiognomic sphere of feelings that is shown in the table:
|The Heaven creates images hsiang
or sian), and the Earth imitates images of the Heaven, and namely
creates samples (fa) and forms (xing).
The Heaven knows the great beginning and the Earth creates and finishes
things. The Heaven has property of light (yang) and the Earth has
property of darkness (yin).
More detailed information on primary contrasts of the Chinese philosophy look in other sources of the information and in particular look The Great Appendix of the Book of Changes I Ching.
Should tell that translations of books of the ancient Chinese philosophy into other languages (Russian or English languages) are not exact, but nevertheless some sense of the Chinese philosophy can be clear by means of available translations. It would be desirable to hope that the understanding of senses of the Chinese philosophy from the point of view of physiognomy of a human face will allow to carry out more intelligent translations of ancient Chinese books in the future.
During interaction of the Heaven and the Earth there is the Tao.
It is possible to tell that Tao arises in Water as in the Bible it is written that in the beginning the God has created the Heaven and Earth, but the Earth was formless and empty (was a darkness yin) and the Spirit of God was hovering over the Water (was a light yang).
Water is a distance between Heaven and Earth in which there is the universe, provided that the universe covers the Earth and the Heaven, and accordingly Tao is carried out in three spheres of the universe where according to three spheres there are spiritual structures:
- good fortune (abundance or grace) (te) and spirit (hun) concern to sphere of consciousness;
- spirit (shen) and soul (guy) concern to sphere of individuality;
- breath (qi) and essence (ching) concern to sphere of feelings.
These spiritual structures of the world are comparable with Trigrams and Hexagrams of the Chinese Book of Changes I Ching.
Besides in the Chinese philosophy there are five elements or otherwise to tell five forms or shapes (xing) which form a nature of the world that corresponds with physiognomic sphere of feelings:
chzi - wisdom and insight;
yi - sensitiveness and keenness;
syin - sincerity;
li - ritual and obedience;
zhen - mercy and restraint.
Five elements allow to influence realization of Tao, namely by means of consciousness the man is capable to understand images of the Heaven and by means of feelings is capable to form the necessary attitude to the world. And also the man is capable to realize necessary events and by that can carry out harmonious Tao in the event that there are no contradictions between heaven and earth (contradictions between consciousness and feelings), or can carry out disharmonious Tao in the event that between heaven and earth there are contradictions.
If harmonious Tao is carried out then the good fortune (te) collects and the potential of spirit (shen) is carried out, that is the purpose of human life from the point of view of the Chinese philosophy.
In a context of Confucian philosophy and in a context of Taoism the identical basic concepts of ancient Chinese philosophy are used, but distinctions consist that "inactivity" (wu wey) is necessary for Taoism, and correct social roles are necessary for Confucian philosophy for realization of human individuality and increase of good fortune (te). Namely inactivity is a condition when the man refuses purposeful displays of individuality caused by personal aspirations, and supposes spontaneous realization of ability to live in the consent with natural laws of the universe, that results in increase of good fortune (te) in the event that ability to live of the man is caused by predeterminations of the Heaven and does not break natural laws of a nature. Correct social roles is a hierarchical position of people in a society adequate to individual qualities of each man and admitting development of public events according to predeterminations of the man in the event that personal individuality of the man correctly expresses laws of the universe that results in increase of collective good fortune (te).
The detailed information on social roles of people in a society from the point of view of Confucian philosophy look on the third page of this site section.
In essence distinction of two philosophical systems consists that in Confucian philosophy the coordination of individuality with public interests for the sake of achievement of the social well being is necessary, and in Taoism the coordination of individuality with natural laws of the universe for the sake of the personal well being is necessary, that assumes the harmonious device of a society in the event that each man lives in the consent with the world. But in any case two philosophies demand refusal of individuality that denies individual immortality of the man for the sake of an unification of spirit (shen) and soul (guy) with the universal good fortune (te) and spirit (hun), that results in prosperity and flourishing and longevity. Namely individuality of the man is satisfied with the public well being but in a result the individual soul of the man is deprived immortality.
It is necessary to tell that in Neo Taoism and in medieval alchemy of Taoism it is spoken about immortality of soul and body, but the understanding of immortality has arisen after birth and resurrection of the Christ, and in early Taoism there was no speech about individual immortality, and the more so in a context of Confucian philosophy it is told nothing about immortality. Namely the soul of the man incorporates with Tao of the Heaven and the Earth according to the law of changes, and again repeats cycles of transformations of life.
Understanding of processes which occur as a result of changes of human soul and as a result of cyclic recurrences of life it is possible in the Chinese philosophy by means of symbols of the Book of Changes I Ching which are a basis of Taoism, and also the Book of Changes I Ching is a basis of Confucian philosophy.
Two philosophical systems use identical symbols, but adhere to different ideological schemes according to which harmony of Tao is feasible and the good fortune (te) is achievable. For Confucian philosophy a key element of a human nature is ritual or decency (li) and for Taoism a key element of a human nature is sincerity (syin), that in a combination to different notions about a social role of human individuality makes distinction of Taoism and Confucian philosophy.
Except for the Chinese book I Ching the basic book of Taoism is Tao Te Ching which describes principles of human life in the consent with world harmony of Tao which are necessary for association of essence (ching) and good fortunes (te), and also the book Tao Te Ching describes principles according to which individuality of the man is identified with good fortune (te) and achieves inactivity (wu wey), but in result the man denies individual immortality.
Physiognomic ratio of good fortune (te) and essence (ching), and also physiognomic ratio of other concepts of Chinese philosophy and Taoism look in the table above on this page. And also look books on the Chinese philosophy as books allow to understand sense of philosophical concepts and by that allow to understand semantic ratio of psycho-physiological phenomena with physiognomy of a human face.
The following section of this website has the name
half faces (concepts 3) where methods of measurements of the
geometrical sizes and proportional parities of
forms of a human face are described, that allows to consider proportions
of a face from the point of view of laws of harmony.
Besides following section describes astrological and numerological ratios according to which proportions of a face are connected with forms of correct geometrical figures, that determines attributes of beauty and can be interesting from the point of view of not only physiognomy but also cosmetic medicine.
previous - upwards - xxxxxxxx