Immortality of a soul in the Gnostic philosophy.
The basic question of any philosophical system consists in immortality, or in
denying immortality of human soul, and other questions are derivatives and
consist in a substantiation of immortal or mortal human existence. In
physiognomy this question too is important as allows to understand sense of a
human life and features of human character as conditions for realization of soul
Philosophical systems of the Ancient Greece are sources of modern philosophy, and also are equivalent to other ancient world philosophical systems, and in particular are equivalent to systems of the Indian philosophy or ancient Chinese philosophy, and consequently the question on immortality is key.
In philosophical system of Plato the soul is consciousness and occurs from sphere of ideas, and after end of material existence comes back in the initial world of ideas. Namely according to philosophy of Plato the human soul-consciousness is "idea" which is embodied in a material world and forms a human body, and if the body collapses then comes back in the world of ideas or otherwise to tell in the world of initial images.
In philosophical system of Aristotle the soul too is consciousness but has other sense, namely the soul is "form" according to which in a shapeless matter the human body is formed. When the body collapses then the free form is separated from a material body and comes back in the world of pure forms where incorporates to the common world consciousness which Aristotle named: the initial engine.
Difference of Plato's philosophy and Aristotle's philosophy consists that for Plato the soul-consciousness is idea according to which bodies are formed in a material world, but if the body finishes existence then the soul-consciousness comes back in the world of ideas and keeps self consciousness, and then the soul-consciousness again embodies in a material world and keeping consciousness of former embodiments. For Aristotle the soul-consciousness is the form and is similar to the common form-building factor according to which human bodies are formed in a shapeless matter, and consequently if the body finishes existence then the soul-consciousness merges with the form of uniform consciousness and loses individual consciousness.
In essence forms of Aristotle correspond with the global world category of movement according to which there is a movement of the world, and consequently Aristotle has given the name "initial engine" to a source of movement, and ideas of Plato correspond with the global world category of life according to which in the world there are images. The information on global world categories look at this site in the other section with the name: divine categories.
Thus in philosophy of Plato and Aristotle there is a soul-consciousness and there is no soul-individuality that denies immortality of individual soul but supposes immortality of consciousness.
Plato and Aristotle had the information on soul-individuality but considered individuality as a handicap for consciousness which was the basic core of their philosophies, and consequently they did not consider individuality as essential. In particular Plato correlated individuality to numbers (Pythagorean numbers) and mythological images, but did not count individuality necessary for philosophy of consciousness.
In philosophical system of Democritus the soul-individuality is essential and the soul-consciousness has no value as the memory of individuality is not kept in consciousness after destruction of a material body, namely the consciousness incorporates to the primary source and atoms of individuality dissipate in space, and consequently the consciousness can not remember individuality which has dissipated and has ceased to exist. Namely Democritus denied immortality of individual soul and counted insignificant immortality of the realized soul as the consciousness does not remember individuality, and consequently the morals of his philosophy consist in individual serenity during existence of a material body, or it is possible to tell that the morals of Democritus' philosophy consist in aspiration to serenity of soul-individuality in continuation of time while atoms of individuality have not dissipated in space.
Thus in philosophical systems of Plato and Aristotle or Democritus, and also from the point of view of all ancient Greek philosophy, which is in some extent congruous to all ancient world philosophical systems, individual immortality of the man is denied but immortality of consciousness is supposed though immortality has different sense in different philosophical systems. For example, in Neo-Platonism the immortality means merge of consciousness with transcendental (incomprehensible) source of life outside of mental comprehended space (outside the world), and in classical philosophy of Plato and Aristotle the soul-consciousness incorporates to global consciousness in limits of mental comprehended space, but in any case a result of human life is identical, namely the soul-consciousness is kept and the soul-individuality disappears.
Not only in the Greek philosophy but also from the point of view of all systems of world philosophies the immortality of soul-consciousness is supposed, but immortality of individual soul is denied. Probably long existence of atoms of individual soul in the connected condition after destruction of a material body but sooner or later atoms dissipate and then individuality of the man disappears, then the consciousness incorporates to the primary source of consciousness and can repeat an embodiment in a material world again.
Therefore birth of the Christ was necessary that immortality of individual human souls became possible, as people can not achieve an indestructible condition of atoms of individuality which is not subject to dispersion in space after the termination of ability to live of a material body. Therefore the Son of the God was embodied among people to begin "the first-born from dead" (the first alive from dead) and to involve in itself everything, and as a result people have seen transfiguration and resurrection and ascension of a material body, that is possible if connection of atoms of individuality is indestructible. Namely as a result of indestructible connection of atoms of individuality there was the resurrection and ascension of the transfigurated body that became the paradigm of Gnostic (based on knowledge) and Canonical (based on belief) Christian philosophy.
The Christian philosophy is similar to systems of other world philosophies but essentially differs as immortality of individual soul affirms and revival (resurrection) of a body is supposed that is impossible from the point of view of all philosophies of the world.
Only in a context of Christian philosophy it is possible to understand the human nature originally as individual immortality is unique true of life, and if individual immortality is denied then the man can not find true in immortality of consciousness, that is the reason of psychological contradictions.
Comprehension of these contradictions probably in a context of some other philosophical systems, in which affirms that consciousness predetermines existence of the man, but only in a context of Christian philosophy it is possible to understand original immortality which will neutralize psychological contradictions of the man. Namely from the point of view of psychology and physiognomy it is possible to consider concepts of different philosophical systems which allow to consider different aspects of the human person, but it is necessary to pay special attention on individuality which allows to understand outlook of the man, and also gives representation about possible psychological problems of the man.
In modern philosophy the soul-consciousness is designated by the term "transcendental", and soul-individuality is designated by the term "existential". Or in the "depth psychology" (Tiefenpsychologie) of the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung the soul-consciousness is designated by the term "EGO", and the soul-individuality is designated by the term "EGOISM" (das Selbst). Application of these terms allows to understand an essence of human individuality in a context of existential philosophy, and an essence of consciousness in a context of transcendental philosophy, and also in a context of psychological system of Carl Gustav Jung. Or it is possible to use terminology of some other psychological and philosophical systems in which there is an understanding of an essence of human individuality, that is shown on the chart.
|The chart shows the conditional image of a human face
in profile which is divided into three physiognomic parts: sphere of
consciousness (forehead and eyebrows), sphere of individuality (nose), sphere of feelings (lips and chin).
For each sphere there correspond concepts (terms) known of different philosophical and psychological systems, namely concepts are grouped according to three physiognomic spheres that forms the triangle which shows ratio of spirit with soul and body, or otherwise to tell ratio of transcendental with existential and material.
Sphere of consciousness corresponds
with transcendental images which are not accessible to sensual perception but
can be realized. Sphere of individuality corresponds with existential
phenomena which are not accessible to sensual perception but are essence of
life. Sphere of feelings corresponds with the material (empirical) phenomena
which are perceived by feelings and can be identified by consciousness.
If the sphere of consciousness prevails then the transcendental world-understanding (ideology) is peculiar to the man. If the sphere of individuality prevails then the existential outlook (weltanschauung) is peculiar to the man. If the sphere of feelings prevails then the material world-sensation is peculiar to the man. But it is necessary to take into account that each man in some extent has world-understanding and outlook and world-sensation, but if any one physiognomic sphere prevails then the appropriate attitude of the man to the world is the most appreciable.
From the point of view of the Depth psychology of Carl Gustav Jung the sphere of consciousness corresponds with realized psychological EGO, and the sphere of individuality corresponds with archetype of EGOISM or psychological center of individual specialty of the man.
It is necessary to tell that Carl Gustav Jung is the author of "analytical psychology" according to which the behavior of people is caused by functions of a brain, and also Carl Gustav Jung is the author of "depth psychology" according to which motives of behavior and psychological inclinations of people are caused by extraordinary factors which are not connected with functions of a brain.
The information about parities of analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung with physiognomy of a human face look on pages of this site in section with the name: analytical physiognomy.
From the point of view of occult philosophy the sphere of consciousness can be correlated with a mental body, sphere of individuality with an astral body, sphere of feelings with a physical body, provided that in a context of occult philosophy, and also in a context of the Greek philosophy or transcendental philosophy, the source of consciousness is outside of conceivable space, and as though is outside of limits of a human body outside of physiognomic spheres of a face. But all three bodies of human essence in a context of physiognomy are within the limits of conceivable space and consequently the mental body corresponds with consciousness.
From the point of view of the standard religious understanding of three levels of human essence the sphere of consciousness corresponds with spirit, the sphere of individuality corresponds with soul, the sphere of feelings corresponds with a body, namely the soul-consciousness is equivalent to spirit, and the soul-individuality is soul as such.
Thus different philosophical and psychological systems operate with identical concepts but use different terminologies or give to concepts different sense, and consequently differently estimate properties of the man. Especially distinction of opinions can be noticed in estimations of human individuality as the sphere of individuality is inaccessible to direct sensual perception, and consequently the individuality is insignificant or is a handicap for realization of consciousness in many philosophical and psychological systems, but it is a corner stone. Namely the sphere of individuality is the most important for understanding of the man and demands special attention. Therefore if in this or that philosophical or psychological system there is a distinction between realized personality and individual personality then such system is high-grade, and if information about individual EGO is absent then the system is incomplete.
The original understanding of individuality, and understanding of aspirations of individuality to immortality is possible only in a context of the Christian philosophy.
More detailed information on understanding of immortality and individuality in different philosophical and psychological systems, and also the information on differences of different philosophical and psychological systems from concepts of Christian philosophy, and in particular Christian Gnostic philosophy, I shall try to publish in the future.
The following page gives comparison of ancient Indian philosophy with physiognomy of a human face.
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