Principles of Confucian philosophy.
Notion about three foundations and five
constancies is basic for Confucian philosophy, that in the Chinese language has the name "san gan wu chan".
The word collocation "san gan" (three foundations) means hierarchical norms of relations or rules of decent submission, and the word collocation "wu chan" (five constancies) means qualities which are a basis of a human nature. Three foundations and five constancies of Confucian philosophy can be compared to physiognomic levels of a human face in profile that is shown in the table.
|The table conditionally shows the profile of a human
face which consists of spheres of consciousness, individuality, feelings.
The physiognomic sphere of consciousness includes three facial levels to which there correspond three hierarchical pairs (three foundations of Confucian philosophy): sovereign and dignitary, father and son, husband and wife.
The physiognomic sphere of feelings includes five facial levels to which there correspond five moral qualities (five constancies of Confucian philosophy).
The information on physiognomic sphere of individuality to which there corresponds a nose, look on the third page of this site section.
The hierarchical pair of sovereign and dignitary corresponds with top and middle of a forehead as sovereign is the chief for dignitary
similarly to how synthesizing consciousness is determining for integrating
consciousness, but the integrating consciousness is necessary for synthesizing
The hierarchical pair of father and son corresponds with top of forehead and eyebrows as relations of father and son are similar to the parity of synthesizing consciousness and analytical consciousness, namely the synthesizing consciousness and analytical consciousness are mutually necessary.
The analytical consciousness corresponds with eyebrows, the integrating consciousness corresponds with middle of forehead, synthesizing consciousness corresponds with top of forehead, about what it is in detail told in the site section which has the name: half faces (concepts 1).
The hierarchical pair of husband and wife corresponds with middle of forehead and eyebrows as relations of husband and wife are similar to parity of integrating consciousness and analytical consciousness, namely the integrating consciousness is a derivative from analytical consciousness but is determining for analytical consciousness.
The listed hierarchical pairs and types of consciousness define norms of human mutual relation, namely three hierarchical pairs mean different variants for rules of decency and different variants of mutual behavior which are known in Confucian philosophy.
From the point of view of physiognomy if the top and middle of forehead are expressed then the person realizes norms of subordination between sovereign and dignitary. If the top of forehead and eyebrows are expressed then the person realizes norms of relation of father and son. If the middle of forehead and eyebrows are expressed then the person realizes norms of relation of husband and wife. But it is necessary to take into account that the listed hierarchical pairs are conditional philosophical characters, and in essence pairs mean different variants of the realized social behaviors which are peculiar to people depending on understanding of public norms and depending on expressiveness of physiognomic levels in sphere of consciousness.
Confucius had the expressed middle of forehead and very much expressed top of forehead according to historical legends, and consequently Confucius paid special attention to norms of human relation which in a context of Confucian philosophy are comparable to relations of chief and subordinate (sovereign and dignitary).
Except for hierarchical norms of mutual relation the key concepts in Confucian philosophy are five moral qualities (constancies) which are comparable to physiognomic sphere of feelings as other name of qualities (constancy) in different Chinese books is "five natures" or "five properties" which undoubtedly concern to sphere of feelings or otherwise to tell are displays of feelings.
Chzi - wisdom and insight (prudence, common sense, judiciousness) corresponds with the interval between nose and upper lip (element of water).
Yi - sensitiveness and keenness (respect) corresponds with upper lip (element of metal).
Syin - sincerity (kind intention, ease) corresponds with lower lip (element of ground).
Li - ritual and obedience (observance of ceremonies) corresponds with the interval between lower lip and chin (element of fire).
Zhen - mercy and restraint (philanthropy) corresponds with a chin (element of tree).
From the point of view of Confucian philosophy the listed definitions are ideal human properties of the man who aspires to perfection, but from the point of view of physiognomy the listed properties matter if the appropriate physiognomic levels in sphere of feelings are expressed or not expressed. Namely if any levels of the face are expressed then the person can show the appropriate properties and if levels are not expressed then the appropriate properties are not appreciable, though the person can have these properties.
If the chin is expressed then the person has reactionary feelings independent with feelings of people, namely the person does not pay attention to reciprocal feelings of people but can show mercy and restraint which are necessary for perfection. And if the chin is not expressed then the person has no independent reactionary feelings but nevertheless can be merciful and constrained, though mercy and restraint are more appreciable if these properties are shown by the unmerciful and violent person.
If the interval between chin and lower lip is expressed then the person has reactionary feelings dependent on feelings of people, namely the person observes ethics (ceremoniousness) if people observed ethics in mutual relations, but the person can listen to feelings of people even if people are inconsiderate, that is display of perfection. And if the interval between chin and lower lip is not expressed then displays of ethics are less appreciable, as in this case from the point of view of environmental people it is not seems that the person demands observance of ethics in reply to the own ethic relation to people.
If the lower lip is expressed then the person has compromise feelings according to which own feelings correspond to feelings of people even if feelings of people are insincere, but the person can show sincerity and insight, namely the person can guess insincere feelings of people and not suppose conformity of own feelings with insincere feelings if people show insincerity in mutual relations. And if the lower lip is not expressed then displays of sincerity are not appreciable, as feelings of the person do not seem to people appropriate to their feelings in this case, and consequently people do not notice sincerity which the person shows during mutual relations.
If the upper lip is expressed then the person has regulated feelings independent with feelings of people, namely the person does not take into account personal feelings of everyone, but the person can be sensitive and can be indulgent to people even if people do not observe the standard rules for expression of feelings. Otherwise it is possible to tell that the person feels validity or injustice of people but can be fair irrespective, that is necessary for perfection. And if the upper lip is not expressed then keenness and validity are imperceptible as it not seems to people that the person is exacting to regulated display of feelings.
If the interval between upper lip and nose is expressed then the person has regulated feelings dependent on feelings of people, namely the person coordinates feelings of people in a society but can show wisdom and to establish own rules for expression of feelings if the standard rules are false. Namely feelings of the person can be not coordinated with the common feelings if it denies sane sense. And if the interval between upper lip and nose is not expressed then in this case displays of wisdom are imperceptible, as even if the person feels lie of the common rules and establishes own rules then people do not see that the person changes the rules for the sake of sane sense, but it seems that the person acts autocratically because of indifference to the rules.
The information on dependent and independent reactionary, regulated and compromise feelings look on this site in section which has the name: half faces (concepts 1).
Thus moral qualities and hierarchical norms of mutual relations in Confucian philosophy correspond with physiognomic levels of a human face. But it is necessary to tell that Confucius and followers of Confucius, and also Confucian philosophy as a whole did not consider concepts of the own doctrine in comparison with forms of a human face. And also in the Chinese physiognomy there are no mentions for comparison of Confucian concepts with a human face, but is doubtless that Confucian philosophy is the psychological scheme of the human personality and consequently has conformity with physiognomic forms of human faces.
In various books of the Chinese and Confucian philosophy there are interesting judgments and conclusions which can be correlated to physiognomic principles, that allows to analyze characters of people from the point of view of very ancient philosophical and psychological schemes. For example, read free citation from the book "Li Yun" (judgments and conversations). If the man has validity (yi) then people do not despise him. If the man has manner (li) then people support him. If the man has sincerity (syin) then people trust him. If the man has an insight (chzi) then achieves success. If the man has mercy (zhen) then can use other people.
And also look other books of the Chinese and Confucian philosophy.
If it seems that comparison of philosophical concepts with physiognomy of a human face is unreasonable then in any case such comparison promotes understanding of philosophical concepts and allows to be guided in complex crossings of philosophical ideas. As there is a general universal scheme according to which the world is constructed and the man is created, and consequently comparison of world structures with forms of a human body allows to understand the world.
The following page gives the further comparison of physiognomic levels of a human face with concepts of Confucian philosophy, and also gives comparison of physiognomy of a human face with principles of Chinese numerology and philosophy.
beginning - upwards - following